So Yahoo bought Tumblr. Cool.
The calm’s long past. Time for the storm. Herewego AS exams.
Your Mass is NOT from Higgs Boson
The Higgs Boson is awesome but it’s NOT responsible for most of your mass!
The Higgs mechanism is meant to account for the mass of everything, right? Well no, only the fundamental particles, which means that electrons derive their mass entirely from the Higgs interaction but protons and neutrons, made of quarks, do not. In fact the quark masses are so small that they only make up about 1% of the mass of the proton (and a similar fraction of the neutron). The rest of the mass comes from the energy in the gluon field. Gluons are massless, but there is so much energy in the field that by E=mc^2 there is a significant amount of mass there. This is where most of your mass comes from and the mass of virtually everything around you.
Thanks to Professor Derek Leinweber for his great images, animations and explanations. Check out his site to find out more: http://bit.ly/ZZTKFP
Thanks to audible.com for supporting this episode: http://bit.ly/ZJ5Q6z
Massive misconception which even I thought was true until very recently.
Q:Thanks for replying. I would really like to know more about the equations behind what is happening. The half equations of the reduction or oxidation of ions and such. I get what is happening in theory, however, once the math is brought in I can't seem to keep up. Is there any way it could be simplified a little?
I guess you understand how the basic process works, but essentially we’re using a current to separate an ionic substance (known as the electrolyte). The positive ions (cations) are attracted to the negative cathode, and the negative ions (anions) are attracted to the positive anode and, voilà, electrolysis!
When they reach the electrode, the ions either release or gain electrons to become uncharged and separate from the electrolyte. The reason the half equations are so important is that they tell us exactly what is happening to the ions once they reach an electrode.
Let’s take hydrochloric acid (HCl) as an example. It consists of H+ and Cl- ions. The positive H+ ions will be attracted to the negative cathode and the negative Cl- ions will be attracted to the positive anode.
When the H+ ions reach the cathode they will gain electrons and become uncharged. We can start off by writing:
H+ —> H2
Because for hydrogen to be stable in an uncharged state it has to be a covalent molecule. However, this doesn’t balance properly because we have two hydrogen atoms on the right and only one on the left. So, we fix this:
2H+ —> H2
Finally, we remember that each hydrogen atom gains one electron, so we add enough electrons so that both sides have the same total charge:
2H+ + 2e- —> H2
We can repeat this three-step process with the chlorine ions to receive this equation:
2Cl- —> Cl2 + 2e-
(Notice here how the electrons are on the right hand side of the equation because the chlorine ion has released two electrons.)
And there you have it, half equations!
Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth.
This quote just saved me from a pseudo-heart attack…
This post comes over a week late, but, Kenneth Appel passed away on the 19th of April this year.
Along with Wolfgang Haken, he solved the four-colour theorem, proving that any two dimensional map can be filled in with 4 colours without adjacent countries sharing the same colour. Their proof was heavily dependent upon using a computer and, after its success, it brought about a change in mathematicians’ attitudes towards using computers.